The Communist Manifesto in Plain and Simple English (A Modern Translation and the Original Version)

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  1. Synonyms and antonyms of Communist Manifesto in the English dictionary of synonyms
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  3. The Communist Manifesto in Plain and Simple English (A Modern Translation and the Original Version)
  4. The Communist Manifesto in Plain and Simple English

Synonyms and antonyms of Communist Manifesto in the English dictionary of synonyms

It is time that Communists should openly, in front of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this fairytale of the Demon of Communism with a Manifesto a statement of beliefs and goals of the party itself. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a Manifesto of the party itself.

To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London, and made a draft of the following Manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages. To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London, and sketched the following Manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages.


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Free man and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word: oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant fighting against each another, carried on an uninterrupted, sometimes hidden, sometimes open fight - a fight that each time ended either in a revolutionary reorganization of society in general, or in everyone losing. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.

In the earlier periods of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into several sections, all sorts of divisions in wealth and power. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, even more specific categories. In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank.

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In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations. The modern bourgeois society that has grown out of the ruins of feudal society has not gotten rid of class rivalry. It has simply established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones.

Our time period, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, has, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class enemies. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two huge hostile camps, into two great classes, directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms.

It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms: Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes, directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.

From the peasants of the Middle Ages came the contract workers of the earliest towns. From these towns the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed. From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The Communist Manifesto in Plain and Simple English (A Modern Translation and the Original Version)

The discovery of America and the first sailing around the Cape opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonization of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the ways to go about exchanging goods and services, and in goods in general, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development. The medieval system of industry, under which industrial production was monopolized by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets.

The Communist Manifesto in Plain and Simple English

The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished when faced with division of labour in each single workshop.


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The feudal system of industry, under which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop. Meanwhile the markets kept growing, the demand always rising. Even the assembly line was no longer enough.

As a result, steam and machinery revolutionized industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry, the place of the industrial middle class, by industrial millionaires, the leaders of whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois. Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America made possilbe.

This market has given a huge development to trade, to navigation, to communication by land. This development has, in its time, depended on industry expanding; and has grown in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended - in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its resources, and pushed into the background every social class handed down from the Middle Ages. Modern industry has established the world-market, for which the discovery of America paved the way.

This market has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land. This development has, in its time, reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages. We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long history of development, of a series of revolutions in the methods of production and of exchange.

We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a connected political advance of that class. An oppressed class under the rule of the medieval nobility, an armed and self-governing group in the medieval town; here independent urban republic as in Italy and Germany , there taxable third estate of the monarchy as in France , afterwards, in the actual period of manufacture, serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a balance against the nobility, and, in fact an essential part of the great monarchies in general, the bourgeoisie has at last, since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world-market, conquered for itself, in the modern representative State, exclusive political control.

The executive branch of the modern State is simply a committee for managing the shared business of the whole bourgeoisie. Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that class. An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility, an armed and self-governing association in the mediaeval commune; here independent urban republic as in Italy and Germany , there taxable third estate of the monarchy as in France , afterwards, in the period of manufacture proper, serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a counterpoise against the nobility, and, in fact, corner-stone of the great monarchies in general, the bourgeoisie has at last, since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world-market, conquered for itself, in the modern representative State, exclusive political sway.

The executive of the modern State is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie, wherever it has gotten the advantage, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has without mercy torn apart the various feudal ties that connected man to his natural superiors, and has left remaining no other connection between man and man than basic self-interest, than callous cash payment. It has drowned the most heavenly joys of religious enthusiasm, of chivalry, of sentiment, in the icy water of self-interested calculation. It has turned personal worth into exchange value.

And in place of the numberless and doable freedoms that were once considered sacred, has set up that single, impossible freedom -- Free Trade.

In one word, for exploitation taking advantage unfairly , poorly hidden by religious and political illusions: naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation. The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It is a mixture of both Marx and Engels' theories and opinions on society and politics. It also has their written ideas of how the capitalist society of their time would be replaced by socialism, and after that, communism.

Especially by the abolition of private property and child labour and by making means of production common, strong progressive income tax and free education for all. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Communist Manifesto The first version of the book, written in German. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.